European policy makers have been working to enhance quality of life in the places we live and work through the development of new mobility services and technologies. MaaS is central to achieve this objective. MaaS is a new concept aiming to provide passengers with flexible, efficient, user oriented and ecological mobility services covering multiple modes of transport on a none‐stop shop principle (Kamargiannietal.,2018). It offers multimodal route planners and different services under one fare and on the same ticket. MaaS brings together various transportation options including public transport, bike sharing,ride‐hailing,on‐demand options, etc. and enables citizens to plan their route, choose their preferred mode of travel and book and pay for every thing via one app.
This background makes the MaaS ecosystem more complex than other new mobility services and technologies. In particular, data providers in the MaaS ecosystem play an important role to offer a superior multi-modal experience to customers because they process,repackage,and publish data to support information on routes, payment, pricing,and the real‐time position of transport services. There are also many technological actors who provide different technical support to make MaaS solutions viable. Given the complexity of MaaS, policy makers and MaaS operators need to understand relevant MaaS policies and regulations in order to design actionable plans for the future.
Therefore, this deliverable reviews regulations and governance models that are relevant to MaaS to better understand the current status of MaaS policies. Then, it investigates how MaaS regulatory policies and governance models are influenced by different economic, political and social factors. Finally, 4 case studies in Amsterdam, Barcelona, Greater Manchester and Helsinki Metropolitan Area are conducted to investigate what kind of MaaS regulatory schemes are expected in the future. The results of this deliverable provide recommendations for policy makers to design MaaS regulatory schemes in order to achieve their ultimate policy goals.